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HISTORY OF WOMEN’S STUDIES UNIT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA

In 1984 a Women’s Studies Group was launched at the University of Guyana (UG) Turkeyen Campus to generate interest in Women’s Studies and undertake research, teaching and documentation. The members of the Women’s Studies Group worked towards the establishment of the Women’s Studies Unit (WSU) on Campus as a means of furthering their work and impact on campus. This militant group of women scholars and activists were relentless in their drive to ensure that UG come on par with other universities around the world by establishing a Women’s Studies Unit.

The proposal for the Unit was approved by the Social Sciences Academic Board at its meeting of July 14, 1987. After approval was granted for the Unit, and less than one month away from the twenty-fourth year of the University of Guyana’s existence, the Women’s Studies Unit was finally set up in September 1987. As part of its programme the Unit offered four courses; WS 150: Women’s Studies, WS 100: Women and Literature, ENG 550 Twentieth Century Women Writers, and Diploma in Gerontology; all courses related to women. Subsequently the Board approved a proposal for the Unit to be upgraded into an Institute of Women’s Studies, which was intended to expand on what was already in existence as well as to continue to promote Women’s Studies at the tertiary level, but unfortunately, such a progressive move was denied by the then Vice Chancellor, Dr. James Rose.

For administrative purposes the Unit was located in the Faculty of Social Sciences for quite some time. As a matter of fact during its unfledged years the Unit was moved from one location to the next within the Faculty of Social Sciences. As such the Unit has never been able to settle and evolve into a fully developed Unit because of the many other challenges it faced; physical space apart. Finally in late 2005 the Unit was almost on the verge of being closed down because the said Vice Chancellor was of the belief that the Unit was not functioning effectively. However, it managed to survive that ordeal and in January 2006 WSU was merged with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) which is currently being housed in the Faculty of Technology.

 

HISTORY OF WOMEN’S STUDIES UNIT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA

In 1984 a Women’s Studies Group was launched at the University of Guyana (UG) Turkeyen Campus to generate interest in Women’s Studies and undertake research, teaching and documentation. The members of the Women’s Studies Group worked towards the establishment of the Women’s Studies Unit (WSU) on Campus as a means of furthering their work and impact on campus. This militant group of women scholars and activists were relentless in their drive to ensure that UG come on par with other universities around the world by establishing a Women’s Studies Unit.

The proposal for the Unit was approved by the Social Sciences Academic Board at its meeting of July 14, 1987. After approval was granted for the Unit, and less than one month away from the twenty-fourth year of the University of Guyana’s existence, the Women’s Studies Unit was finally set up in September 1987. As part of its programme the Unit offered four courses; WS 150: Women’s Studies, WS 100: Women and Literature, ENG 550 Twentieth Century Women Writers, and Diploma in Gerontology; all courses related to women. Subsequently the Board approved a proposal for the Unit to be upgraded into an Institute of Women’s Studies, which was intended to expand on what was already in existence as well as to continue to promote Women’s Studies at the tertiary level, but unfortunately, such a progressive move was denied by the then Vice Chancellor, Dr. James Rose.

For administrative purposes the Unit was located in the Faculty of Social Sciences for quite some time. As a matter of fact during its unfledged years the Unit was moved from one location to the next within the Faculty of Social Sciences. As such the Unit has never been able to settle and evolve into a fully developed Unit because of the many other challenges it faced; physical space apart. Finally in late 2005 the Unit was almost on the verge of being closed down because the said Vice Chancellor was of the belief that the Unit was not functioning effectively. However, it managed to survive that ordeal and in January 2006 WSU was merged with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) which is currently being housed in the Faculty of Technology.

While this presented a good opportunity for WSU and IDS to develop strong linkages with other development institutes around the world and offer courses to reflect the global changing culture; it would appear that this golden opportunity to join with IDS was misconstrued as being malicious, and unfortunately a strong relationship did not develop between the then staff of WSU and IDS. This was partly so because there were no policy documents provided defining the merger, structure and boundaries.

Distinguished Professor Clive Thomas, Director of IDS was uncertain then what type of structural relationship would ensue between the WSU and IDS, since this was and is still not defined by any policy document of the University of Guyana. As a matter of fact there existed much hostility between my predecessor and members of IDS as well as UG community. Since the move to merge WSU with IDS was perceived as having sinister intentions. Therefore no effort was made to solidify this relationship in the interest of moving forward.

WSU relative to IDS

If we were to take a look at the model, which by the way was influenced by IDS/UG, IDS at the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom (UK), the school at which I had the privilege of studying, is really an outstanding example to say the least. Scholars from this university are sought after by the international community to serve in various leadership capacities where their expertise is craved after. In short, it is seen as one of the best models of tertiary education providers which has been able to seriously integrate gender in the course offered. It also constantly transforms itself in order to reflect the changing education needs of the world. New courses are constantly being developed to satisfy the global education needs.

The opportunity presented to WSU/IDS to merge and transform into a striving gender and development institute was not grasped at by the relevant parties at that time and personal clashes resulted. Unfortunately instead of the move to merge with IDS improve the status of the Unit relative to the rest of the university, the Unit further deteriorated.

Territorial boundaries, petty differences and personal clashes emanating from WSU during that time only served further to squeeze the life out of the Unit and reduce its support base.

STAFFING

When the Unit was first established the members of staff comprised highly skilled and qualified personnel who co-operatively served to push its projects forward. So much so that staff members executed the functions of the office; they included one Co-ordinator, two Programme Officers, Two Research Assistants, one Secretary and one Office attendant respectively. With such an impressive team it becomes clear that the Unit would obviously have no trouble functioning and carrying out its responsibilities. However, presently there is practically one professional staff member in myself who joined the staff in 2007 and has been doing the work of WSU single-handedly to endure that WSU remains in UG’s purview.

Nevertheless the question that lingers on is, what is the justification for staff reduction in WSU, and to what benefit? Women, gender and development studies are not going to vanish they will remain as long as we remain living. Women, gender and development studies and initiatives are contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDSs) (2015). Gender and development studies are vital to any forward-looking university.

VISIBILITY

The Unit also remains obscure in spite of several recommendations that were made as well as serious attempts at changing this position. WSU needs a possible name change, sign board and physical transformation. WSU/IDS need a building through which its activities can be conducted. The building needs to be fully equipped with offices, rest rooms, reading rooms etc., to reflect its true nature.

TEACHING

Currently WSU offers only one first semester course, WST 410: Gender and Development; a position that is about to be changed by developing new courses.

PROJECTIONS FOR THE UNIT

  1. BUDGETARY ALLOCATION

From 2007 to present there has been no budgetary allocation. Representations on WSU’s financial position were made to the Dean and Bursary who were unsure what the position was with respect to finances for WSU. In that regard any project that the Unit proposes had to be channelled through the Director, IDS to the Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences for approval. This process proved to be very time consuming and at times caused some amount of frustration. This is especially true in cases where items would have to be purchased for a particular project and the Bursary staff members are sometimes uncooperative.

(Please see proposed budget attached)

  1. NAME CHANGE FOR WSU

The proposal is made for a name change of the Unit from ‘Women’s Studies Unit’ to ‘Women and Gender Department/Unit’. The name change does not suggest redundancy but signifies an assurance that ‘women’s’ issues do not become lost in ‘gender’ which was the expressed fear of some women’s advocates both in and out of Guyana. However, a name change will signify the inclusion of everyone, women, men, boys and girls. Such a change will not only communicate a world view on gender but also ease the pressure off of the men who wish to work towards gender equality and are presently of the view that WSU is off limits for them.

By the same token gender cannot be easily isolated as a separate topic or sector, given its fundamental importance to all areas of social life for both women and men. And might I add in many instances men too suffer marginalisation.

It should be noted also that gender issues range from employment policy to agriculture and from environmental policy to poverty alleviation. In fact, the subject of gender often ends up itself being marginalised when it is separated as an addendum.

Ultimately the challenge therefore should be to integrate men and women into the mainstream of university life. In this case there is need for gender orientation for first-timers to UG for faculty, students, and support staff. Proposals to this effect were also submitted to the personnel department but were just not regarded.

  1. LOCATION OF THE UNIT

Presently the WSU/IDS are in an obscure position and thus can hardly be identified by anyone because there is no clear sign on campus indicating where it can be found.

It is proposed therefore that the Women’s Studies Unit should have its own building in order to give credence and legitimacy to its existence. Apparently the culture of constantly moving from one location to the other has tarnished its image from that time until now.

The proposal is hereby made for acquiring land from UG in order to erect a building to accommodate WSU/IDS. To this end the Civil Engineering Department of the Faculty of Technology can be given the contract to complete the architectural drawing of the plan and make preparations for the construction of such the building. Also the said Department can be given the contract to build the structure and may even be encouraged to get technology students involved in erecting the building as their final year project.

The ideal structure would be a state-of-the-art three-storied building at the front of the Campus but this may not be possible presently since most of the land space at the front seem to be occupied. However, the position would have to be decided on by the University’s administration in consultation with the stakeholders and final outcomes discussed.

  1. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Human Resources

In my estimation the structure that would best serve the Unit is the one similar to what was proposed by Dr Soares. It should be a functional team comprising of one director/co-ordinator, three programme officers, and two graduate research assistants and another individual who would serve as a documentation personnel along with a great administrative assistant. All persons serving in the Unit must “push the wagon” in the same agreed on direction. Those individuals must also display a positive spirit and vitality that would support and enhance the Unit’s work of faculty, students and the broader community. They must also go through some form of gender training. The ideal would be to have at least two males making up the staff complement.

  1. ADVISORY COMMITTEE/SUPPORT GROUP

The idea of having an advisory committee was the vision under which consultations were held with professionals and stakeholders working in the field of Gender or on Women’s issues. Those stakeholders were invited to a meeting at WSU. At that meeting a plan of action was supposed to be worked out on the way forward for the unit. Not everyone who was invited showed; notably absent were those from government agencies.

This effort was intended to inform or help shape and design programmes to meet the needs of the community as well seeing how those organisations represented can provide the support and necessary collaboration to benefit the WSU. However, the meeting did not fully achieve its objects because of the fact that everyone wanted to hold on to their individual political and ideological ideals thus being unable to come to any compromise in order to make concrete decisions. Most of the participants were not prepared to take up a position that this was a new era, and the approach that would have been useful a decade or even two decades ago may not be effective in this current era.

Feminism tended to narrow its concerns to what is unquestionably about women: abortion, childcare, rape, prostitution, pay equity. But according to James 2011, those issues have also served to separate women from wider and deeper concerns such as jobs, housing, land ownership, clean water, peace and justice. In order to keep pace with these global changes the Unit needs to take on a larger vision.

The persons and agencies that I believe can make meaningful contributions in this regard are:

  1. Dr Janice Jackson who was instrumental in establishing the Unit
  2. Ms Lynette Roberts, President of the Guyana Association of Professional social workers
  3. Ms Yvonne Stephenson, Information Resources Manager of the National Resource and Documentation Centre, Ministry of Labour, Human Services and Social Security
  4. Ms Andaiye/Karen De Souza, Red Thread
  5. Ms Hazel Halley-Burnett former Head of the Women’s Affairs Bureau
  6. Ms Donna Morrison, Lecturer, Faculty of Agriculture
  7. Dr Judith Soares, WAND, who, since her introduction to the Unit has already served to bring some perspective to the Unit.

The above mentioned individuals have all been instrumental in some way or other in support of the Unit’s activities. Some have even served as facilitators for past projects. This is in no way an exhaustive one since it does not include representatives from International Agencies. This is not a deliberate effort to leave them out, but unfortunately no firm collaboration was established by me with some of the international organisations because of some distasteful acts by my predecessor in the conduct of the professional relationships with those agencies. But with Dr Soares’ visit to Guyana, some confidence has been restored to the Unit and a fresh effort is made to establish the needed collaboration.

Nevertheless I need to indicate that I am not particularly impressed by an all female advisory committee. I do believe that male involvement (not lip service) can help in changing the face of how we do women and gender studies. I have been trying for some time now to get male colleagues involved, I’ve even gotten two of them to do presentations for the domestic violence activities that the Unit has had. However, that was as far as it got a one-off involvement with no commitment to bringing their perspectives to bear in helping to move the Unit forward.

As a matter of fact it is clear that the Unit is making unacknowledged contributions to social changes. As a result of stimulating discussions that were generated in a WST 410 class some time ago sure created an impact on the national move to target men in the fight against domestic violence. In those special sessions in which Ministry officials were present we brainstormed the ways in which the Unit can possibly help men who have a tendency to become violent. At that session also I indicated to the class that for that particular year 2009, we were not going to plan projects for women for International Day for the Elimination of all forms of Violence against Women, but instead were going to target men in the fight against domestic violence. We did, and the results were overwhelming.

The men were at the forefront engaging male students on campus and males in general at their places of work and sensitising them concerning domestic violence. To culminate the process a symposium was held at the Education Lecture Theatre whereby the male members of the class did everything under my supervision.

Out of this was birthed the idea of establishing a support group comprising mostly of men in Region 6. This was very successful and the men in the class that year committed themselves to helping to do similar projects. Unfortunately this was not sustained because of a lack of financial support.

I therefore hold firmly to the view that if a committed male or more than one male colleague(s) is/are added to the staff, this would be a tremendous boost to the Unit.

PROPOSED FUNCTIONS OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE/SUPPORT GROUP

Some of the listed functions are not my original ideas but have been adopted from a previous report:

ü Identify and garner funds for research and other activities of the Unit

ü Serve as liaison between the Unit, community members and policy makers

ü Help to identify points of leverage between community and University

ü Make contact with potential partners to initiate relevant and sustainable programmes

ü Develop and maintain linkages/partnerships with various interest groups locally, regionally and internationally

ü Assist in the promotion of the Unit’s programmes to the wider society

DOCUMENTATION CENTRE

The Unit has roughly about one hundred titles inclusive of journals and reports. However, it became problematic locating information for researchers and students. In most cases this is because the material was not properly catalogued. To this end, in the latter quarter of 2009, I sought the help of the University Librarian to assist in getting the documents properly catalogued. Two staff members were assigned to start work on the material. However, to date this process has not been completed. While help in this regard is appreciated, it is taking unusually long to complete because the Unit has no money to compensate the two employees for their time thus they have to do the work of the Unit when they are less busy with Library duties.

Also I requested that the same library staff train Ms Sharmin Sookdeo, typist clerk assigned to the Unit, in simple library skills so that she would be better equipped to efficiently attend to students and researchers. This training was completed in part, while some aspects of the training are still yet to be completed.

FUTURE OF THE UNIT

Objectives

  1. Promote scholarship on women, gender and development
  2. Provide research and action which will serve as the basis for improving gender relations in society
  3. To establish and maintain links/partnerships with local, regional and international organisations with similar focus
  4. To provide primary data on gender and development for a range of issues in Guyana
  5. To contribute to teaching material/resources on women and gender studies

Action List

  1. Secure promotion since I have been performing the duties of co-ordinator but being paid as programme officer
  2. Secure additional staff members to move the Unit forward

  1. Develop a web page for the Unit in keeping with technological advancement
  2. Provide gender training for faculty and staff of the University of Guyana
  3. Develop a curriculum for teaching more courses in gender and development
  4. Continue to conduct community gender and development programmes to benefit Guyanese
  1. To develop an up to date documentation centre where gender and development issues can be researched

VISION

My vision for the Unit is a well functioning, viable Department where local and international students can access and receive instructions and conduct research in relation to Women and Gender Mainstreaming and Development. Modules such as the following can be offered as certificate courses, which would obviously earn needed finance for the Unit. These courses can be offered as certificate courses or combined as Diploma in Women and Gender Studies:

* Gender awareness in youth development

* Environmental issues in gender and development

* Gender and Conflict Management and Resolution (this module has already been prepared and submitted to the School of Professional Development)

* Cultural perspectives in Gender and Development issues

* Gender and Art, Music, Drama, Media

* Gender and Security Management, a module of this has been used for training Police Officers for the past three years

* Diploma in Women’s Studies

* Gender and Indigenous Peoples

CONCLUSION

It is my firm belief that the time is now for the Women’s Studies Unit to receive the necessary attention and support from the rest of the University and not be virtually ignored as has been the practice of previous administrations.

It is therefore imperative that the resource base of WSU be expanded to reflect the University’s expectations of the Unit. The facilities of the Unit need upgrading and new equipment needed.

Finally I take this opportunity to thank Vice Chancellor Dr Carrington for showing such interest in the Unit and trust that his efforts in improving WSU would not be frustrated by colleagues who not so inclined.

……………………………………………..

Audrey E. Benn

Lecturer/Programme Officer

September, 2012

APPENDIX 1

DIPLOMA COURSE IN WOMEN’S STUDIES

COURSE INTRODUCTION

Women’s Studies is an internationally recognised, multidisciplinary field of teaching and research that seeks to understand the social construction of women and the historical and contemporary mechanisms that promote or limit women’s development as full participants in society. Pedagogical teaching involves in-depth participation from students of the course. There will also be activism outside of the classroom. Creative projects and group activities will be offered in the curriculum and students are encouraged to think “outside the box” when looking at women’s issues.

The course employs feminists and critical theory in order to bring forth a goal of dismantling ideas and forces of oppression globally. The discipline of Women’s Studies is not limited solely to women’s issues, but various forms of oppression in which women’s issues become intricate focal points. Students are encouraged to bridge their learning and community involvement and take action to foster positive social transformation.

Many people are unfamiliar with Women’s Studies because on the surface it may appear as if it does not lead to a real career choice. However, research have proven that graduates of Women’s Studies have gone into a wide range of exciting employment; in business management and computing, building, property, environment and security services, also education, social research and public policy.

JUSTIFICATION

This course is intended to blend theory with practice in order for students to gain insight into how the real world works in relation to women’s position in society. It equips the student with skills to take action in the world for social justice and equality. Each student is encouraged to follow his/her passion and make a lasting difference in the world

Course Objectives

  1. The main aim of the course is to challenge and critique the conventional constructions of knowledge especially relating to women and their lived experiences.
  2. To understand the unique experience of women of all ethnicities, races, and socio economic classes.
  3. To evaluate women’s contributions to the intellectual, social, political, economic, spiritual and artistic achievements that make up human culture.

Course Format

Course content will be delivered using a variety of lectures and other instructional methods. Lectures, discussions, guest speakers, field trips, demonstrations, role plays, video tapes and films will be utilised. Attendance and active participation are expected; please come to participate in class.

Course Requirements and Assessment

Measurement of student learning will be judged on completion of the assignments listed as follows:

Class Participation/Attendance 15%

Reflection Paper 10%

Mid Semester Test 25%

Group Presentation and Paper 25%

Final Examination 25%

Broad Course Outline

  1. Women in History
  2. Women, Arts and the Media
  3. Women in Business and management
  4. Women in Economics
  5. Women’s Health
  6. Women, Religious and Moral Discourses
  7. Women and Sexuality
  8. Researching Women

Course Content

Sessions

Topics

Session 1

History

Critical, Anti-sexist Interrogation of World History on Women

Women’s Suffrage

The Multi-cultural, Multi-racial Dialogues

Women and the Law in Guyanese History

Session 2

Feminism

The Female Identity

Women and Femininity

Feminist Inquiry

Feminist Perspectives

Second Wave of Feminism

Feminist Political Thought

Session 3

Introduction to Women Studies

Conceptual Rationale for Women’s Studies

Women Studies as a Discipline

Women’s Studies as an Interdisciplinary Academic Field

Women’s Consciousness Raising

Practical Conscientisation

The Political Agenda of Women’s Organisations

Session 4

Women, Arts and the Media

Women as Image and Image Makers

Women and the Media

Session 5

Women, Power and International Development

Session 6

Women in Business and Management

Women and their Experiences of Corporate Life

Women in Management

Women in Engineering

Session 7

Mid-semester Assessment

Session 8

Women in Economics

Basics of Discrimination

Women, Work, Wages and Welfare

The Economics of Women, Work and the Family

Session 9

Women’s Health

Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health

Illnesses Affecting Women

Women and Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV)

Session 10

Women, Religious and Moral Discourses

Powerful and Powerless: Women and Religion

Women and Spirituality

The Bible and Feminist Imagination

Contemporary Issues of Women and Religion

Session 11

Women and Sexuality

Cultural Impediments to Women’s Sexual Health

Violence and Sexual Control

Session 12

Violence Against Women

Session 13

Researching Women

Feminist Research Methodologies

Interviewing

Oral History

Focus Group Interviews

Ethnography

Content analysis

Survey

Session 14

Course Evaluation



Session 15

Final Examination

APPENDIX II

UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

GENDER AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION

COURSE OUTLINE 2011

Conflict is a very natural and common phenomenon in human (gendered) social relations. Conflict management and resolution have become an integral part of academia since more and more disagreements are arising and wars are starting. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history and values. It also involves organisations, communities, countries –generally anywhere where people are present, conflict is likely to occur. An understanding of the nature and source of the conflict, and its likely progression and stages will help in its resolution. We should be careful not to privilege the status quo and do not give attention to women and gender issues in both theory and practice. There are many types of conflict management theories which provide us with information about how, why and the results of conflicts. This course will identify a range of conflict resolution approaches, but will focus primarily on preventative measures. The programme is interdisciplinary in scope, focusing primarily on the social sciences and stressing the nexus between theory and praxis. Throughout this course you will be required to think critically and independently and to question taken-for-granted assumptions.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF COURSE

1. To identify what conflict is why it arises and how it can be utilised for maximum benefit.

2. To create a learning environment where participants will not merely acquire factual knowledge, but will also develop approaches to and methods that can be used to manage and resolve conflict successfully in the organisational setting with a greater awareness of the conflict management style of them and others.

  1. To recognise the various stages of conflict and preventing them from escalating;
  2. To invest less time and energy in conflict and create more productive relationships with others.

5. To develop critical faculties that can be used as a defence against crooked and illogical conflict-related thinking, and against the subtle and persuasive techniques of the mass media.

COURSE CONTENT

Session 1 What is conflict?

a) Arriving at a working definition of conflict

b) Types of Conflict

Session 2 Introduction to Conflict Situations

a) How does a conflict begin?

b) Understanding women and men in conflict situations

c) The role of diversity and multicultural issues in conflict

d) Interrogating concepts of conflict management and conflict resolution

Session 3 Social Conflict Theory

a) Karl Marx

b) Conflict Behaviour in Organisations

c) Understanding Need Based Conflict (Expert Perspective)

d) Game Theory and Conflict Model

Session 4 The Roles of Conflict Resolution in Social and International Relations

a) Understanding Third Party Characteristics and Third Party Strategies

b) Intermediary roles and function

Session 5 Range of Conflict Resolution Approaches

a) Conflict Settlement

b) Conflict Resolution

c) Gendered Conflict Settlement

Session 6 Negotiation Approaches

a) Role and Skills of Negotiator (women and men)

b) Conditions of Negotiation

c) Styles of Negotiation

Session 7 Class Test I

Session 7 Mediation Approaches

a) Problem-solving mediation

b) Empowerment and Recognition

Session 8 Advocacy Approaches

a) Involving Leaders

b) Building Partnerships

c) Mobilising community groups

d) Capacity Building

e) Working with Mass Media

Session 9 Social Policy: Effecting Positive Change

Session 10 Understanding Coalitions

a) Identify challenges to be addressed

b) Determine cause(s)

c) Brainstorm ways and identify persons responsible for addressing problems

Session 11 Conflict in a Multicultural/Pluralistic society

a) Typology of Multicultural Societies

b) Colonial (Segregationist) Societies and Conflict (Institutional Race separation among ethnic groups)

c) Pluralistic (Multicultural) Societies and Conflict

Session 12 Identity-Based conflict

a) Psychology of Consciousness (religion, social class, education, sexuality, disability,

health and age

b) Conflict and Health, Nutrition and Food Security

Types of Identity (Power-based, Rights-based, Interest-based, Identity-based, Feminist- informed, Therapeutic, and Transformative Models

c) Conflict and sexual violence

Session 13 Gender and Conflict

a) Gender conflict and economics

b) Vulnerability versus Responsibility

c) Conflict and Health, Nutrition and Food Security

d) Conflict Water, sanitation and Hygiene

e) Gender, conflict and Security

Session 14 Negotiation, Mediation and advocacy between individuals, among family members and community groups

Session 15 Course Evaluation

ASSESSMENT

Test 1 - 25%

Test II - 25%

Term Paper - 50%

Total - 100%

REFERENCES

To be revised.

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