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Transition Journal (Issue 43, 2015)

Transition Issue 42 Volume 2

Transition Issue 42 Volume 2

Download this file (Estimating the potential Employment Effects Associated with the Proposed Caricom)ESTIMATING THE POTENTIAL EMPLOYMENT EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROPOSED CARICOM[Roger Hosein and Jeetendra Khadan]468 Kb
Download this file (Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance.pdf)Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance[Hector Edwards]144 Kb
Download this file (Structural Adjustment Programmes and Their Lasting Negative Effects on the Lives)Structural Adjustments and their lasting negative effects...[Structural Adjustments and their lasting negative effects on the lives of women and children in Guyana by Audrey Benn]169 Kb
Download this file (The Impact og Trade Liberalization on Labour and Gender- A Case Study of Guyana.)The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Labor and Gender - A Case Study of Guyana[Louis Dodson & Dianna DaSilva-Glasgow]237 Kb
Transition Issue 42 Volume 1

Transition Issue 42 can be accessed here on the site in PDF version for download.

Download this file (TRANSITION 42 (i).pdf)Transition Issue 42 Volume One[PDF Articles from the 42nd Issue of Transition, produced by the Institute of Development Studies, University of Guyana]482 Kb
Transition Journal

Transition Journal
Issue 42, Number 1 2013


Joycelyn Williams (University of Guyana). Selective Interventions and Growth in Guyana

There is wide agreement among development economists that neoclassical growth theory does not fully explain the growth experience of developing and newly developed countries. Hence several alternative theories have been advanced to assist in explaining the growth of such countries. The functional growth model is one model that seeks to more satisfactorily explain varying growth experience of developing and recently developed countries. This paper examines Guyana’s growth record 1992 to 2010, against one aspect of the World Bank’s Functional Model of Growth (1993).  This model was developed by the Bank following its review of the development experience of several of the high performing Asian economies. In this model, growth depends on three pillars: a)  policies that promote macro-economic stability- that is low increase in price levels, stable currency exchange rates, low indebtedness, b) selective policy interventions, and c) institutional policies such as a technocratic civil service, and wealth sharing mechanisms. 

Since each of these three pillars can be the subject of lengthy discussion, this paper focuses on the role of Selective Interventions in Guyana’s growth record since 1992. The paper will discuss how selective interventions were the cornerstone of the Asian Islands industrial policy which allowed them to achieve sustained growth over three decades (1960’s to 1990’s), and then use that basis to discuss Guyana. According to current development thought, selective policy interventions are the cornerstone of a successful industrial policy. Such interventions includes the following:  low interest rates or credit often provided by development banks, focusing credit on the high growth sectors, deliberately giving certain industries tax concessions, and supporting arrangements that will push exports of the favored industries. In keeping with structural change theory, the favored industries tend to be manufacturing and services.

Key words: Selective intervention, Growth, Policy


Dr. Cyril Solomon (University of Guyana). Inflation in a Small Open Economy: The Case of Guyana

The purpose of this paper is to review the experience of inflation in Guyana, a small trade dependent economy, to explain its occurrence and to examine the policy implications. At the micro level, dramatic spikes in the inflation rate have the potential of imposing severe and exorbitant costs on many individuals and groups in the economy, in particular, the vulnerable groups, such as the elderly, especially pensioners with meager means of subsistence and those whose incomes are fixed owing to weak bargaining power. Those who lack the foresight to anticipate inflation and to take the appropriate precautions against it, such as savers and lenders, also suffer great losses of wealth, while borrowers gain. There are also menu costs which can be burdensome for businesses operating with small profit margins. At the macro level, high inflation rates also put countries at a competitive disadvantage vis a vis their competitors with lower inflation rates and can affect the balance of payments and the exchange rate. Guyana has had many experiences with inflation, most of which were due to external shocks and needs to pursue policies that avoid inflation and mitigate its effects when it occurs.

Key words: Inflation, Guyana, Small, Open


Dr. Michael Scott (University of Guyana). The Values Imperative And Public Sector Modernization In Guyana

Guyana’s public sector modernization programme has been pursued with varying degrees of enthusiasm and commitment. However, what is certain is that the factors influencing such reforms have not disappeared; but instead they have become entrenched while scarce resources have been mobilized and expended with little or no accomplishment in sight. For Guyana the process has been episodic, at times consisting of robust “reform speak” anchoring raised expectations; followed by interludes of despondency and rising frustrations with little or no initiative being pursued in the cause of reform. What has become evident is that while the modernization programme was being fashioned or refashioned little attention was being paid to the cultural dimension with its fundamental basis of “values.” Although their importance has been acknowledged values are strategically important tools for organizations/institutions alongside vision and mission. Thus, in a racially/ethnically diverse society with a history of ethnic or racial tension and where the ethnic/racial composition has been disproportionally reflected in public sector institutions such tension will be evident. Therefore, there is need to focus on pro-change values which facilitate readiness for modernization as well as operational values which serve as a moral compass for appropriate conduct. However, in Guyana’s context specific focus must also be on values which promote national integration and cohesion in the delivery of public goods and services. This paper attempts to explore those values which have been proffered in the public sector modernization programme and to assess their appropriateness to Guyana’s governance environment. The analysis indicates that values are acknowledged as critical to reforms but not given the attention required in a transformation process. Also specific values relevant to national cohesion and racial harmony/integration have not been given the emphasis required which may militate against the expectation of authentic and comprehensive public sector transformation.

Key words: Values, Values Imperative, Modernization


Evelina Singh (University of Guyana). HIV/AIDS Criminalization in Guyana

Abstract: The transmission of HIV through sexual intercourse is of grave concern in Guyana. Notwithstanding, the National Assembly, after consultation with a Special Committee tasked with the responsibility of facilitating public discussions on Criminal Responsibility of Persons living with HIV, concluded that the criminalisation of transmitting HIV is not the solution to prevent the deliberate spread of HIV because this would debilitate public health initiatives. Therefore, in the absence of HIV-specific criminal legislation in Guyana, a victim would have to seek justice by invoking the Criminal Law (Offences) Act. Similarly, a victim to whom HIV was recklessly transmitted would also have to invoke this legislation. This article seeks to explore whether the law relating to inflicting grievous bodily harm can facilitate criminal liability for recklessly transmitting HIV through sexual intercourse; to what extent R v Dica is persuasive to criminal liability for recklessly transmitting HIV through sexual intercourse; and whether Guyana should have created HIV- specific criminal legislation.

Key words: HIV AIDS, Criminal legislation, Guyana


Transition Journal
Issue 42, Number 2, 2013


Dr. Roger Hosein and Jeetendra Khadan (UWI, St. Augustine). Estimating the Potential Employment Effects Associated With the Proposed Caricom–Canada Fta And The Epa

This paper analyses the potential trade related employment effects on the manufacturing sector in the Trinidad and Tobago economy on account of declining trade preferences from the European Union and Canada. The study employs a partial equilibrium model developed on an imperfect substitution framework to perform the relevant experiments. The results indicate that approximately 2 per cent of the existing workforce in the manufacturing sector is likely to be affected from import–substituting manufacturing products.
Key words: Trade, Employment, CARICOM, Canada


Louis Dodson & Dianna DaSilva-Glasgow (University of Guyana). Trade, Labour and Gender: A Case Study of Guyana

Abstract:This paper argues that the push for a people-centered approach to development and feminist-led genderization of development policies has seen the insertion of labour and gender onto the trade policy agenda. Within this framework, the paper examines the impact of trade on labour and gender through a case study of Guyana. The results suggest that trade liberalization did not make a contribution to the reduction in poverty and income and gender inequalities.  Further, even though skills upgrading forms an integral part of the competitiveness strategy of the export sector, the low/unskilled were unable to benefit financially from such upgrading due to the poor performance of the export sector, as a whole, occasioned by forces beyond their control.  As the low/unskilled sought to be decently rewarded, numerous industrial actions resulted, but with mixed results as the politicization of the labour market saw numerous violations of core labour standards thereby questioning the overall impact of trade liberalization on workers’ welfare.

 Key words: Gender, Labour, Trade Liberalization, Welfare


Audrey Benn (University of Guyana). Structural Adjustment and the Lasting Negative Effects on the Lives of Women

Abstract:The implementation of structural adjustment measures to halt economic decline and promote growth of Guyana’s economy was seen as the best remedy for the economic dilemma that confronted the nation. The ‘neo-classical counter revolution’ or Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) were first introduced to Guyana's economy in the 1980s. Capitalism and socialism as economic systems were experimented on to stimulate rapid economic growth and eradicate poverty but failed in the case of Guyana. As a result of the failure of socialism, SAP was introduced. It came at a time when Guyana’s economy was in dire straits and deteriorated even further following the administration’s nationalisation of foreign-owned companies, taking control of almost all economic activity. Therefore the only way out according to proponents of (SAPs), was to construct the right blend of state, market, and democratic institutions to guarantee peace, inclusion, well-being and security. The aim of this study therefore is to analyse the lasting effects of structural adjustment policies on the status of women in Guyana especially affecting the areas of employment, education and health.

Key words: Structural Adjustment, Women, Well-being


Hector Edwards (University of Guyana). Motivation and Actions to Enhance Performance

Abstract: All aspects of our lives are influenced by motivation. Everything we do or say is directed towards an expected result, which is the motivational force driving our behaviour. Cyclists are no exception to this process. Some of the leading athletes in professional cycling have been accused, found guilty of doping, and even admitted to such behavior.  However, the motives along with the demographic background of the athletes have been responsible for, and in some instances contributed to their actions. The adoption and use of performance enhancement practice have become unacceptable by most stakeholders–International sporting bodies, sponsors, spectators, fellow athletes, and some pharmaceuticals, within the society. The approach of some athletes to fulfill their various needs whether perceived or in reality, can contribute to a decline in their behaviour.  The decline in behaviour can contribute to the negative publicity that the sport of cycling has been experiencing in recent times. The policies adopted by cycling’s governing body - Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), will therefore have to address the underlining concerns of the athletes, rather than reacting to their behaviour which would not change unless their needs are fulfilled.

 Key words: Motivation, Performance, Athletes


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Articles in Transition Journal

Issue 29

Socio-Cultural Integration among Teachers by M.K. Bacchus

CARICOM and the New Liberal Trade Order by Clive Y. Thomas

Guyana: Exploratory Models of Inflation, 1960-1990 by Ramesh Gampat


The Guyana Trade Union Movement in the New Millennium by Clive Y. Thomas

Issue 33

Racial Conflict in a Plantation Society: The Case of British Guyana, 1831 – 1905 by Kampta Karran


Defence and Diplomacy in the Subordinate System: The Case of Guyana by David Granger


To Raze or Renovate? Developing Countries and the Struggle with the WTO by Tony Weis

Issue 35-36

The Constitution of Guyana by R. W. James


Part One: The Formative Years - The Independence Constitution (1966-1980)

The Socialist Constitution (1980-2000)

Democratic Reforms (2000-2003)

Part Two: The Power Structure

State Organs: Legislature, Executive & Judiciary

Electoral system

Part Three: Controlling the Executive - Parliamentary Government


Protest actions

Constitution Office-holders/Institutions

Part Four: Supremacy of the Constitution – Parliamentary Sovereignty & Constitutional Supremacy


Part Five: Social Problems and Outside Intervention

Social Problems

Foreign & Regional Intervention

Part Six: Conclusion

Short and Long Tern changes



The political economy of the Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS)

Last week I concluded my rather extended discussion on the current global economic crisis and the lessons to be learnt from this. I trust readers would not infer from this that I believe the global crisis is over and we can safely return to business as usual. Far from it, while this is an appropriate point to introduce other topics to the discussion, I promise I will return to the global crisis if there are significant untoward developments in the coming weeks as we close out 2009 and enter into the New Year, 2010.

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Norway’s deception: Partnership or capture of Guyana’s rainforest

In this column last week I started what I hope will be a fairly full assessment of the Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS). At the time of writing this column I have not been able to access the revised version of the Draft LCDS, which the government had promised to place in the National Assembly before the United Nations Climate Change Conference (Copenhagen Summit), which starts tomorrow. As I await the revised version of the LCDS, I shall confine my assessment to those topics which should not be significantly affected by likely revisions.

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Norway And Guyana’s rainforest: Why beggars do not choose

For this week’s column, let me begin by re-emphasizing a couple of observations I have made about global inter-governmental negotiations thus far, as I continue to evaluate the low-carbon development strategy and the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), between the Government of Guyana and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway, as well as its related Joint Concept Note between the two parties to the agreement.
Diplomatic principle.

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Norway and Guyana’s rainforest: Santa Claus or Old Higue

I hope that by now readers would have realised that Norway can in no way be looked upon as Guyana’s Santa Claus. I have also tried so far in recent columns to make it categorically clear that my principal intention is not simply to bash Norway as a historic polluter of the earth’s atmosphere. My main purpose in presenting Norway’s horrendous environmental profile is to assert the obligation this places on Guyanese to ensure our pristine forests are developed in an integrated, transparent, accountable and sustainable framework for the benefit of all Guyana. In particular to ensure that our national patrimony does not end up being mortgaged to the promotion of Norway’s studied and calculated efforts to deceive the world into believing that it cares more than any other nation about saving Planet Earth. As the saying goes “beware when Old Higue around looking for life blood.”

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Rule or exception: Double standards and fighting global warming

‘Dirty secrets’
I hope that I have already indicated clearly Norway’s double standards in its climate change and global warming actions. More generally, its Santa Claus image has taken a serious beating in the approach to the just concluded Copenhagen Summit. In his Guardian Weekly column last September, Mark Curtis bemoaned the fact that in spite of Norway’s benign image abroad it had “become the home of four dirty little secrets.” One of these is of course the environmental sleight-of-hand I have been dealing with in these columns in previous weeks.

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